Ames S9 Metabolic Activation

Aroclor 1254 induced rat liver microsomal fraction S9

Many carcinogens are per se non-mutagenic until they are enzymatically transformed to an electrophilic molecule that may bind to DNA resulting in a mutation. The metabolic enzymes of bacteria used in the Ames Test differ substantially from those in mammals. Therefore, to mimic the metabolism of test substance that would occur in mammals, the S9 fraction is added to the Ames test. This post-mitochondrial supernatant S9 fraction from homogenized rat liver contains drug metabolizing enzymes including Cytotchromes P-450, Aroclor 1254 is used to induce drug metabolizing enzyme activity in rat livers. S9 induced rat liver S9 is very useful for mutagenicity and genotoxicity screening tests, since they effectively activate promutagens to mutagens.

«more info»

PB-β-Naphtoflavone induced rat liver microsomal fraction S9

Many carcinogens are per se non-mutagenic until they are enzymatically transformed to an electrophilic molecule that may bind to DNA resulting in a mutation. The metabolic enzymes of bacteria used in the Ames Test differ substantially from those in mammals. Therefore, to mimic the metabolism of test substance that would occur in mammals, the S9 fraction is added to the Ames test. This post-mitochondrial supernatant S9 fraction from homogenized rat liver contains drug metabolizing enzymes including Cytotchromes P-450, PB-β-Naphtoflavone is used to induce drug metabolizing enzyme activity in rat livers. S9 induced rat liver S9 is very useful for mutagenicity and genotoxicity screening tests, since they effectively activate promutagens to mutagens.

«more info»

S9 Cofactor Kit: Buffer Salts, G-6-P, NADP

The S9 Cofactor Kit is a metabolic activation system used in the Ames Test and in the genotoxicity assays (Micronucleus Test) and is used together with the postmitochondrial rat liver S9 Fraction. It consists of the co-factor NADP with a linked NADPH regeneration system.  The NADPH regeneration system is based on the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity which converts NADP+ to NADPH in the presence of the substrate glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) in a buffer-salt environment.

«more info»

S9 Booster to reduce a possible toxicity of S9

S9 Booster is used in the Ames Test to reduce possible toxicity of S9 mix, especially observed with with TA100 and TA1535. S9 Booster has no effect on toxicity in other Ames tester Strains.

«more info»